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Educators and Theorists
Frederick Barnard (1809–1889): Topic Page
American educator and mathematician, b. Sheffield, Mass. During his long administration (1864–89), Columbia grew from a small undergraduate college of 150 students into one of the nation's great universities, with an enrollment of 1,500.
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878): Topic Page
Educator and writer, born in East Hampton, New York, USA. After her fiance’s death (1823), she founded the Hartford Female Seminary, launching a life-long campaign as lecturer, writer, and advocate for women’s education.
John Dewey (1859-1952): Topic Page
Dewey’s belief that the method of enquiry, the scientific method, should be applied to practical problems lent philosophical support to the rise and the vogue of the social sciences.
Charles W. Eliot (1834–1926): Topic Page
American educator and president of Harvard, b. Boston, grad. Harvard, 1853. Under Eliot's 40-year administration, Harvard developed from a small college with attached professional schools into a great modern university.
Paulo Freire (1921-1997)
From Collins Dictionary of Sociology
(1921-1997) radical educationalist. His best known work Pedagogy of the Oppressed was translated into English in 1972. Freire used learning to facilitate the development of consciousness amongst oppressed and marginalised groups.
Friedrich Froebel (1782–1852): Topic Page
German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. Froebel stressed the importance of pleasant surroundings, self-activity, and physical training in child development.
Ivan Illich (1926-2002)
From The Dictionary of Alternatives
A radical educationalist and social thinker. His first and most famous book, Deschooling Society (1971), argued for the replacement of prison-like institutions for education by lifelong learning webs.
Horace Mann (1796–1859): Topic Page
American educator. Was made secretary of the newly created (1837) state board of education at a time when the public school system was in very bad condition.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952): Topic Page
Maria Montessori was a physician, an educational reformer, and an advocate for children and peace. She is best known for designing the educational system known as the Montessori Method, which flourishes today in more than 8,000 schools on five continents.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980): Topic Page
Although Piaget is internationally known for his work in child psychology, he regarded his work as a contribution to genetic epistemology, i.e. the theory of knowledge directed upon the development (genesis) of knowledge.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778): Topic Page
Swiss-French philosopher, author, political theorist, and composer. What was new and important about his educational philosophy, as outlined in Émile, was its rejection of the traditional ideal: education was not seen to be the imparting of all things to be known to the uncouth child; rather it was seen as the "drawing out" of what is already there, the fostering of what is native.
Booker T. Washington (1856–1915): Topic Page
American educator, b. Franklin co., Va. Under his direction, Tuskegee Institute became one of the leading African-American educational institutions in America.
Emma Willard (1787-1870): Topic Page
In the history of women’s education in the United States, Emma Willard was one of the first to advocate high schools for girls and the establishment of women’s colleges.
From The Dictionary of Alternatives
A term meaning ‘self-education’ or ‘self-directed learning’. The great age of auto-didacticism in England was during the formation of radical working-class organizations and movements at the end of the eighteenth and in the first half of the nineteenth century.
From The Encyclopaedia of the Renaissance
Those arts which, according to a classification made first in antiquity, were worthy of study by a free (Latin liber) man.
From The Columbia Encyclopedia
Method of elementary education devised by British educators Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell during the 19th cent. to furnish schooling to the underprivileged even under conditions of severely limited facilities.
Affirmative Action: Topic Page
In the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.
Brown v Board of Education: Topic Page
Case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954. Linda Brown was denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka because she was black.
From Dictionary of American government and politics
Busing refers to the assignment and transport of children to schools beyond their immediate neighbourhoods in order to obtain racial balance.
Civil Rights: Topic Page
The rights guaranteed by the state to its citizens. It incorporates the belief that governments should not arbitrarily act to infringe these rights, and that individuals and groups, through political action, have a legitimate role in determining and influencing what constitutes them.
Desegregation: Topic Page
The process of ending separation or isolation of a group who were restricted by law or custom to separate living areas, public facilities, educational institutions, etc.
Racism: Topic Page
Racism can be described as an extreme form of ethnocentrism (i.e., seeing one’s language, customs, ways of thinking, and material culture as preferable).
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