Skip to Main Content

Citing Sources

 The most common ways to cite are:

Within the text of your paper:

  • Parenthetical references, or
  • Footnotes

After the text of your paper:

  • Works Cited lists,or
  • References lists,  or
  • Bibliographies

Have you ever heard the saying, "Give credit where credit is due?" When you properly cite a source in your paper or project, that's what you are really doing: giving credit.

It's important to give credit to the person who first thought of a good idea or said something worth quoting -- if you don't give credit, then it appears that you are claiming the credit for yourself.  That's known as plagiarism(See the "Plagiarism" tab, above.)

Don't claim credit, even accidentally. Give credit to the right person byciting your source.

Help with Creating Citations

The DBU Writing Center exists to help students write better papers. Their web site explains the services they provide, and includes great handouts.

Other sites that offer great information about citation styles:

Purdue University OWL - (Online Writing Lab)

Official APA site

Official MLA site

Official Turabian site


Why is avoiding plagiarism so important?

 Plagiarism is theft; plagiarism is a lie; plagiarism involves pretense and deception; plagiarism is a violation of the DBU Honor Code.

Why does DBU have an Honor Code? Consider Colossians 3:23:

"Whatever you do, do your work heartily, as for the Lord rather than for men."(NASB)

Your opportunity for an education at DBU is a gift from God. Don’t allow dishonesty or laziness to tarnish that gift.

According to research expert William Badke, "...the point of a research is not simply to quote or interpret others, but to evaluate their work and provide your own arguments" (243). 

Badke, William. Research Strategies: Finding Your Way Through the Information Fog. 4th ed. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, 2011. Print.

These sites will help you understand plagiarism and how to avoid it:

Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism - from Accredited Schools Online

How to Avoid Plagiarism - video from Rutgers University

How to Recognize Plagiarism - tutorial from Indiana University

10 Types of Plagiarism - video from

Avoiding Plagiarism - tips from Hamilton College, NY

Citation Styles

Citations are meant to help the research process. The citation helps you find the original source of the idea or quote.

Citation styles are taken from style manuals that help authors be consistent when writing for publication.  

The three styles used at DBU are:

APA - American Psychological Association

MLA - Modern Language Association

Turabian (Chicago) - Kate L. Turabian wrote this manual  for students writing theses and dissertations in the Chicago style.

When you use a particular citation style, you are less likely to leave out important details, like dates or page numbers, and  your readers can locate your sources.  

The DBU Colleges prefer these citation styles:

College of Business: APA

College of Christian Faith: Turabian

College of Education: APA or MLA

College of Fine Arts:

Music: Turabian

Communications: APA

College of Humanities & Social Sciences:

English, History, Foreign Languages: MLA

Psychology, Sociology: APA

Political Science, Criminal Justice: APA

College of Natural Sciences & Math: APA or "scientific" MLA