(63 B.C.-14 A.D.) Augustus Caesar was born as Gaius Octavius in 63 BCE. His father had been governor of Macedonia; his mother was Julius Caesar’s niece. The young Gaius became Caesar’s protégé, adopted son and heir, and his eventual successor.
From Chambers Dictionary
Roman emperor. Formerly a close friend of Emperor Nero and ex-husband of Nero's consort, the Empress Poppaea Sabina, from AD 58 until Nero's downfall (AD 68), he governed in Spain, virtually as an exile from court.
From The Columbia Encyclopedia
(A.D. 188-217) Roman emperor (211-17); son of Septimius Severus. His real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and he received his nickname from the caracalla, a Gallic tunic he regularly wore
From The Encyclopedia of World History
On the death of Severus Alexander, the internal stability of the Empire evaporated, and no emperor was able to secure the loyalty of the armies for long. Of those who ruled from 235 to 284, one died in battle, one was captured by the enemy, and one died of plague - all others either died in civil wars or were assassinated.
The son of the Western Empire’s ruler, Constantius Chlorus (reigned 305–306 CE), Constantine was acclaimed emperor by the legions in Eboracum (modern York, England) after his father’s sudden death. A series of civil wars ensued, ending with Constantine in sole control of the empire by 324 CE.
The Eastern Roman Empire 395–1453, with its capital at Constantinople (formerly Byzantium, modern Istanbul). It was the direct continuation of the Roman Empire in the East, and inherited many of its traditions and institutions.